Security and privacy

About the 1Password security model

1Password is secure by design. Learn how 1Password encrypts your data, protects your privacy, and safeguards your information.

Your data is safe in 1Password. Fundamental design choices were made to protect everything you store in 1Password so you can trust it with your passwords, financial information, and more. 1Password protects you and your information in three different ways:

  • End-to-end encryption leaves the keys in your hands – and nowhere else.
  • Smart features limit your exposure to threats outside 1Password.
  • Full transparency makes sure 1Password can be and is audited by experts.


1Password security begins with your 1Password account password. It’s used to encrypt your data, so no one but you can read it. It’s also used to decrypt your data when you need it. Your password is never shared with anyone, even us at AgileBits, which means that you’re the only person who can unlock your 1Password vaults and access your information. Here’s how 1Password secures your data – and the password used to protect it – from all kinds of attacks:

  • End-to-end encryption. Everything in your 1Password account is always end-to-end encrypted. This makes it impossible for someone to learn anything by intercepting your data while it’s in transit or even obtaining it from AgileBits.

  • 256-bit AES encryption. Your 1Password data is kept safe by AES-GCM-256 authenticated encryption. The data you entrust to 1Password is effectively impossible to decrypt.

  • Secure random numbers. Encryption keys, initialization vectors, and nonces are all generated using cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generators.

  • PBKDF2 key strengthening. 1Password uses PBKDF2-HMAC-SHA256 for key derivation which makes it harder for someone to repeatedly guess your 1Password account password. A strong password could take decades to crack. Learn more about how PBKDF2 strengthens your account password.

  • A secret 1Password account password. Your account password is never stored alongside your 1Password data or transmitted over the network. Taking this precaution is a bit like making sure the key to a safe isn’t kept right next to it: Keeping the two separate makes everything more secure. The same principle applies here.

  • Secret Key. The data in your 1Password account is protected by your 128-bit Secret Key, which is combined with your account password to encrypt your data. Learn more about your Secret Key.


Security doesn’t end with encryption. 1Password was designed to protect your data in other ways, too, whether it’s by automatically clearing your clipboard or making sure your account password can’t be stolen. Here are just some of the other ways 1Password keeps your data safe:

  • Clipboard management. 1Password can be set to automatically remove passwords from your clipboard. This prevents anyone from gaining access to your data by pasting a password you copied and forgot about. It also means that tools that save your clipboard history don’t store your secrets.

  • Code signature validation. 1Password verifies that your browser has been signed by an identified developer before filling your sensitive information. This protects you if your browser is tampered with, or if you try to use a browser that hasn’t been proven secure.

  • Auto-lock. 1Password can automatically lock to make sure that no one can access your data when you’re away from your desk or after closing the lid on your laptop. Learn how to set 1Password to lock automatically.

  • Watchtower vulnerability alerts. 1Password can warn you when a website has been hacked – without ever sending AgileBits a list of the websites you visit. Learn more about how Watchtower protects your privacy.

  • Phishing protection. 1Password only fills passwords on the sites where they were saved. No one can steal your password by pretending to be a site you trust.

  • Your input, required. 1Password only displays or fills data when you tell it to. Whether you’re revealing a password or filling your shipping address in your browser, your personal information is never displayed or filled without your command.

  • Biometric access. You can unlock 1Password with your fingerprint on your Mac with Touch ID, iPhone, iPad, and Android devices. This makes accessing your information more convenient, and also means that someone can’t learn your account password by peering over your shoulder. Learn more about biometric security on Mac, iOS, and Android.

  • Secure Remote Password (SRP). Most websites send your password to a server when you try to sign in, leaving it vulnerable to interception. Your 1Password account uses the SRP protocol to authenticate your login details without sending your password over the internet, so it can’t be stolen while it’s in transit. Learn more about Secure Remote Password.


1Password wasn’t built in a vacuum. It was developed on top of open standards that anyone with the right skills can investigate, implement, and improve. Open tools are trusted, proven, and constantly getting better. Here’s how 1Password respects the principles behind the open tools on which it relies:

  • Open data formats. 1Password uses the open-source SQLite database format. Learn more about the SQLite database format.

  • Trusted encryption algorithms. 1Password uses algorithms that experts have examined and verified to keep information secure.

  • Privacy-preserving telemetry. Telemetry at 1Password is optional. 1Password only collects in-app usage data with your awareness and consent, using a system designed to protect your privacy. Learn more about telemetry at 1Password.

  • Principled privacy policy. 1Password was designed with a deep respect for your privacy. Any information you share with us is only ever used to provide you with service and support. Learn more about 1Password and your privacy.

  • Straightforward export tools. 1Password includes simple export tools that make it easy to move information out of 1Password. Your data is yours, and you can leave if ever you choose to. Learn more about how to export data from 1Password.

Learn more

If you have a security concern, contact 1Password Support with more information.